Promotic

C language formatting rule

The formatting rule described here is used for entering how to write value(s) into the text. For example it specifies that the real value should be written with three decimal digits, etc. This formatting text is used in the PROMOTIC application as follows:
- in methods Pm.StringFormat and Pm.StringScan.
- in the "Value format type" configurator of the PmgString object.
- in the "Value format type" configurator of the PmgWEdit object.


If you don't use the characters % and \ in the formatting rule, then the result will equal the format text and the values of control variables will not be regarded.
Character % is used for listing the values of control variables. Chars following the % define the format of listing:
- Char % specifies listing the % char. Example: "%%" will be "%" after processing
- Char - (minus) specifies alignment of the value to the left
- first string of numbers specifies minimal width of the field. Example: "%5d" will be "..123" after processing (periods mean blanks)
- number 0 at the beginning of the first string of numbers specifies inserting number 0 instead of the blank. Example: "%05d" will be "00123" after processing.
- period followed by the second string of numbers specifies accuracy, i.e. maximum number of decimal places. Example: "%6.3f" will be "12.345" after processing, "%.2f" will be "12.34" after processing.
- character of the data type:
Data type Char Note Example
Boolean 'u'   %u
Byte 'u'   %u
Integer 'd' notation in decimal (e.g. "254", "-56" ..) %d, %5d, %05d
Integer 'x' notation in hexadecimal (e.g. "E5F") %x, %4x, %04x
Long 'ld'   %ld, %7ld, %07d
Single
'e'
'f'
is shown in the form: [-]d.ddde[+-]dd
is shown in the form: [-]dddd.ddd
%e
%f, %3.4f
Double
'le'
'lf'
is shown in the form: [-]d.ddde[+-]dd
is shown in the form: [-]dddd.ddd
%le
%lf, %4.7lf
String 's'   %s


Extension of the formatting rule syntax by an escape sequence:
This extended syntax can be used only when calling the following methods Pm.StringFormat and Pm.StringScan.
Sequence Char ASCII meaning (see The ASCII table)
\\ Char "\" Backslash
\a Char with code &H07 BEL
\b Char with code &H08 BS - Backspace
\f Char with code &H0c FF - Formfeed
\n Char with code &H0a LF, NL - Linefeed, New Line
\r Char with code &H0d CR - Carriage return
\t Char with code &H09 HT - Tab, Horizontal Tabulator
\v Char with code &H0b VT - Vertical Tabulator
\xh Char with code &Hh  
\xhh Char with code &Hhh  


Note:
HexaString (a string in hexadecimal format) can be used in two ways:
1) Display numbers in hexadecimal, where the higher orders are on the left. It corresponds to the storage in memory of Big Endian. This is the conversion of a number value to a string (and vice versa) using a formatting string. To use HexaString in this way, it is recommended to use the PmFormat object.
2) Encoding the contents of a memory section of a certain size (e.g. 1B, 2B, 4B, ...) in hexadecimal. Then it depends on how the number is stored in memory. On Intel and AMD processors (x86 or x64 architecture), the so-called Little Endian is used, where the lower orders are on the left. To use HexaString in this way, it is recommended to use the PmBuffer object, which can handle both Little Endian and Big Endian.
 
Example1:
Let's have the formatting rule:
Temperature=%5d ... Power=%5.2f
and the leading variable (Temperature, the 98 value) is of the Integer type, the next variable (Power, the 34.2345 value) is of the Single type.
The output text will be in the form:
Temperature= 98 ... Power=34.23
Example2:
JavaScriptSelect and copy to clipboard

var str = Pm.StringFormat("New line \n char 18hexa: \x18", 1);
is equivalent to the entry
VBScriptSelect and copy to clipboard

Dim str
str = "New line " & Chr(&H0a) & " char 18hexa: " & Chr(&H18)
Now it is correct to pass the parameter without the field for example in the Pm.StringFormat method:
JavaScriptVBScriptSelect and copy to clipboard

var i = 1;
Pm.Debug(Pm.StringFormat("Value:%d", i));
PROMOTIC 9.0.21 SCADA system documentation - MICROSYS, spol. s r.o.

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